June 2014

-Publication of the second research paper related to the project. (written by Emre, edited by WASET)
Article details: "Control of an Asymmetrical Design of a Pneumatically Actuated Ambidextrous Robot Hand" edited by World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), International Journal of Electrical, Electronics, Communication, Energy Science and Engineering. Volume 8, Number 5, pages 990-995, 2014.
(Co-)Authors/researchers: Emre, Anthony H. and Dr Kalganova.

April-May 2014

-Total reconnection of the Ambidextrous Hand to electronics and pneumatic interfaces, including manifolds to increase the movement's speed. (Emre)

Connection to the new pneumatic devices to the electronic interface

-Recalibration of grasping movements with the new pneumatic system. (Emre)
-Video recording of movements. (Anthony H., Emre and Mashood)

Grasping features of the Ambidextrous Hand

-Presentation of the Ambidextrous Hand to the International Conference of Autonomous Robots and Agents 2014 (ICARA 2014), sponsorised by WASET. (Emre)

March 2014

-Publication of the first research paper related to the project. (written by Emre, edited by CTA)
Article details: "Remote-Controlled Ambidextrous Robot Hand Concept" edited by Journal of Computer Technology and Application (CTA), David Publishing Company, USA. Volume 4, Number 11, pages 569-574, November 2013.
(Co-)Authors/researchers: Emre, Alexandre, Fabrice, Zhu, Souraneel, Itziar, Michel, Dr Paramonov, Dr Turner, Prof Stelarc and Dr Kalganova.
-Partial reconnection of the Ambidextrous Hand. (Emre)
-Demonstration of grasping features on objects (an egg and an Arduino microcontroller). (Emre)

Holding of an egg and an Arduino microcontroller

January-February 2014

-Research about new pneumatic transducers, adapted to Festo's muscles. (Mashood and Emre)
-Repairs of the Ambidextrous hand's thumb. (Mashood and Emre)
-Testing of the new pressure sensor, decided it was not adapted to the project. (Emre)

December 2013

-Deconnection of the pneumatic and electronic interfaces in view to upgrade the system using manifolds (Mashood and Emre)

November 2013

-Basic movements of right/left hand, including ambidextrous features. (Emre)
-Video footage and putting online. (Mashood)
-Literature review on control about pneumatic systems and robot hands. (Emre and Mashood)
-Research and ordering of manifolds specifically adapted to the Ambidextrous Hand structure. (Emre, with the help of Mashood and Shadow Robot Company)

October 2013

-Knowledge transmission about pneumatic interface, electronic system and hardware design. (From Emre to Mashood)
-Redesign of the analog relay interface. (Mashood and Emre)
-Connection of all the fingers' phalanges to the pneumatic and electronic interfaces. (Emre and Mashood, with the help of Anthony H.)
-Synchronized movements of several fingers in same time. (Emre)

August 2013

-Connection of EMG signals to the ambidextrous hand, movement of the five proximal phalanges (Marina and Anthony T., with the help of Emre)
-Implementation of remote webcam with ROS. (Anthony T.)
-Improvement of fingers recognition using geometrical shapes. (Frédéric)
-Connection of the plugin to standard javascript functions integrated in the webpage. (Frédéric)
-Connection of video recognition to the ambidextrous hand, movement of the five proximal phalanges (Frédéric and Anthony T., with the help of Emre)

June 2013

-Preparation of the microcontroller hardware interface for the full Ambidextrous Hand. (Anthony H.)
-Preparation of the analog and pneumatic interfaces. (Emre)

Electronic and pneumatic interfaces for the 18 muscles of the incoming Ambidextrous Hand

-Final designs of ambidextrous fingers. (Luke S.)
-Preparation of additional mechanical structures (Michal and Luke K.)
-Integration of Hall effect sensors and PCB interface on the fingers joints and the palm (Luke S.)
-Assemblage and birth of the mechanical structure of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand (Luke S., Michal and Luke K., with the help of Emre and Anthony)
-Soldering of the analog feedback interfaces (Anthony H., with the help of Emre, Marina, Luke K. and Anthony T.)
-Presentation of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand at MIB, Made In Brunel, London. (whole Brunel's team, with the help of the new interns)

Introduction of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand to Made In Brunel showcase

-Familiarisation with EMG process and the necessary electronic material (Marina, with the help of Emre)
-Comparison of different packing interfaces specific to robotic system. (Anthony T.)
-Basic learning of ROS software. (Anthony T.)

May 2013

-Design of a forearm adapted to enough pneumatic muscles for two fingers. (Michal)
-Design of a first thumb version. (Alisdair and Michal)
-Design of a palm. (Luke K. and Alisdair)
-Integration of Hall effect sensors. (Luke S.)
-3D printing and assembly of a first Ambidextrous Robot Hand version, including the forearm, the palm, the thumb and the middle finger. (Luke s., Alisdair, Luke K. and Michal)
-Preparation of the microcontroller hardware interface. (Anthony H.)
-Preparation of the analog and pneumatic interfaces. (Emre)
-Presentation of the project at BE, Brunel Engineers, with a half-built and almost motionless hand. (Whole team)
-Learning and training about pneumatic technology (Marina, with the help of Emre)
-Ordering and connection of specific pneumatic devices to connect the new air compressor and the pneumatic circuit. (Emre, Michal and Anthony H., with the help of Mr Simon Hodkinson and Marina)

March 2013

-Design of an electronic board using integrated circuits as amplifiers to read load cells´ outputs. (Alisdair)
-Calibration of load cells. (Alisdair)
-Calibration of Hall effect sensors. (Luke S.)
-Control of muscles from the website through the Arduino board. (Anthony H., with the help of Emre)
-Preparation of reading setup for pressure transducers, Hall effect sensors and load cells. (Anthony H., Luke S., Alisdair and Emre)
-Testing of prototypes and data collection. (Whole team)
-Update and debugging of the Facebook application. (Emre)

February 2013

-Completion of the test bench. (Emre, Luke K., Michal, Luke S. and Alisdair)
-Testing of prototypes, data collection about maximum ranges and angles for optimisations. (Control by Emre or Anthony, guided by Michal, Luke S., Luke K. or Alisdair relaying one after another according to the prototype)
-Optimisations of prototypes.(Luke K., Michal, Luke S. and Alisdair)
-Comparison and testings of different materials for tendons. (Luke K.)
-Design of a DIY electronic board to read load cells´ outputs. (Emre, with the help of Mr Lateo)
-Design of the forearm. (Michal)

January 2013

-Calibration of pressure transducers. (Anthony and Emre)
-Measures of muscles´ length according to pressure with weights up to 12 kg. (Anthony and Emre)
-Integration of PID control into Arduino board. (Anthony)
-Putting online of left hand and leg movement videos for rehabilitation. (Emre and Michel)
-Literature review about hand gesture recognition. (Emre)

December 2012

-Putting online of the website and debugging of errors. (Emre and Michel)
-Setting up of right hand gesture videos online for rehabilitation. (Michel and Emre)
-Preparation of control setup for measuring pressure, force and displacement. (Anthony and Emre)
-Regular advancements of testbench´s parts. (Emre, Dr Paramonov and Michal)
-Regular updates and debugging of Matlab´s simulation program. (Dr Paramonov)
-Set up of the server for its integration in the board. (Emre)

November 2012

-Design of Hall effect sensors. (Luke S.) -Conversion of Shadow´s microcontroller´s code into Arduino environment. (Anthony)
-Hardware/Software serial link between two boards, set up of ethernet communication, relays to control the valves and testing. (Anthony)
-Simulation of mechanical designs on Matlab´s program. (Dr Paramonov, Emre, Luke S. and Michal)
-Overview of the code about image processing, understanding of its functioning prior to bring further developments. (Emre)
-Training session at Festo about modern industrial pneumatics. (Emre)
-Design of the website including the remote application. (Michel and Emre)
-First classifications of fingers´ coordinates for image processing. Hand recognition´s stability causes problems to implement an algorithm. (Michel and Emre)

October 2012

-Comparison of several boards´ features to replace Shadow´s control unit and interact with enough muscles to drive efficiently a whole robot hand. (Anthony)
-Modelling of robot hands on software to have a real structure instead of basic prototypes. (Luke K., Michal, Luke S. and Alisdair)
-Implementation of a Hall effect sensor to an electronic system for future angular sensors. (Luke S.)
-Choice of devices and beginning of a test bench´s set up. It will allow to have more technical information about the ambidextrous hand´s features, such as ratio between the pressure, the force provided by the muscles and the force obtained at the fingertips. (Dr Paramonov and Emre)
-Improvement of the simulation program with the addition of elastic compliance, detection of objects and forces´ measurements. (Dr Paramonov)

September 2012

-Creation of a computer program on Matlab to simulate mechanical designs. (Dr Paramonov)
-Last overview of remote applications so that further modifications and update can be made. (Emre)
-Advanced literature review about robotic hands. (Emre)

July-August 2012

-Detection of a human hand and finger tips using image processing and Gijs Molenaar´s thesis. Functions to attribute values to fingers are created but the points tracking is not developed yet. (Alexandre)
-Creation of a plugin containing the code for image processing and making it usable from a webpage. (Alexandre)
-Assimilation of simulation program knowledge in expectation of writing a research paper in the future. (Emre)
-Modifications of the server and the client, addition of connections between the remote interface and the host computer. (Zhu, with the help of Alexandre)
-Connections of the hand´s commands from the website to the server. (Fabrice, with the help of Alexandre)
-Replacement of the ambidextrous finger prototype by a Science Museum´s hand to run the tests. (Emre)
-Remote testings (Fabrice and Zhu), mechatronics assistance and electronic debbuging. (Emre)
-Commands can be sent to the hand from both from a Qt software and a Facebook application, with a streaming feedback of an embedded webcam. (Alexandre, Zhu, Fabrice and Emre)
-Congratulations to Alexandre for the amazing work he did in three months. (Dr Kalganova, Emre, Zhu and Fabrice)
-Attempts of points tracking for the image processing. The encountered difficulties are pointed out for further works. (Zhu)

May-June 2012

-Three interns from ESIEE Engineering join the project to make the robot hand controllable through internet, with an embedded webcam, to provide vision on the hand from a remote computer.
-Familiarization with specific features of Linux' kernel, to match modules with a video interface. Comparison of different possibilities and solutions. (Alexandre)
-Creation of the server for the embedded webcam and the remote-control. (Alexandre)
-Creation of the client, its graphical interface and remote interactions with the webcam´s video settings. (Alexandre)
-Addition of a new task: using a webcam, a user´s gesture should be recognized and replicated by the robot hand. (Dr Kalganova)
-Litterature review and analysis of hand gesture recognition using a webcam. (Alexandre)
-Learning of web development and how to connect it to a social media, to have a Facebook application. (Fabrice)
-Familiarization with the server and learning of how making connections between it and the control´s code. (Zhu)
-Attempts of optimizing again the finger´s behavior, but the improvements are limited. (Emre)
-Testing with a new finger architecture for a small application, which is finally abandoned because of difficulties coming from the image processing development. (Emre)
-Learning of programming skills to bring future updates to the remote applications. (Emre, with the help of Alexandre)

April 2012

Such a model is finally reached. The only problem is that the two distal phalanges cannot flex together when the proximal phalange is close to a vertical position.
New tests can be done with sensors. Using Shadow Robot´s program, the angular behavior of the finger can be controlled from a second sensor. Tests with force sensors are successful as well, the finger is both able to provide enough force to hold a piece of metal or go back in another way when it detects a piece of paper.
The next step would be to rebuild a second non-ambidextrous finger to do tests about grasping objects.

March 2012

-Intermediate models are built, none of them work correctly. (Emre)

February 2012

Using Shadow Robot´s program implemented in the microcontroller and Dr Turner´s advices for PID control, the tests using an angular sensor are successful.
Souraneel uses torsion springs instead of classic springs. The forces provided by these ones are opposite to muscles´ contraction, which limit the movements of the prototype.
To imitate a human behavior, the finger must be able to flex and extend keeping either a left or a right behavior, which is impossible on Emre´s model but theoretically possible with Souraneel´s one. The two designs needs to be combined.

January 2012

-A far better ambidextrous behavior is reached on one model, accurate enough to do first tests with sensors. (Emre)
-The spring-returned model barely moves and needs to be improved. (Souraneel)

December 2011

Dr Turner proposes Emre and Souraneel to come to Robotville´s exhibition at Science Museum. This is an opportunity to have a very close look on the DEXMART hand and meet Prof Claudio Melchiorri from University of Bologna.

October-November 2011

Souraneel joins the project for his academic UG project. After a couple of weeks he is convinced that a spring-returned structure would ease the control of the finger.
Emre reaches an acceptable ambidextrous behavior using the principle of lever, coupling small wheels to bigger ones.
To minimize the number of actuators, Prof Stelarc asks if it would be possible to control one finger with two muscles instead of four. All the attempts end in failure.

September 2011

-First attempts of reaching an ambidextrous behavior, with the four air muscles at disposal connected on a single finger. (Emre)

August 2011

Different architectures are still tested to reach a better behavior.
At the end of the internship, two fingers are controllable from the computer program. Each of them is connected to two air muscles but they are not ambidextrous and their movements are very limited.

Two fingers made of Meccanos

Emre asks to stay longer and to extend his internship´s term. Dr Kalganova proposes him to carry on working on the project as a PhD student.

July 2011

-Familiarization with a software to interact with the second electronic board. (Itziar)
-Programmation of some simple commands. The protype can be controlled by pressing buttons. (Itziar)

Control of the air muscles with a PIC microcontroller and buttons

-Accident with Shadow Robot´s board. Debugging at the company. Learning of how to proceed for future problems. (Emre)
-Global understanding of Shadow Robot´s program. Commands are implemented inside, which allow many new possibilities. (Emre)
-The prototype barely moves. Tests of different structures, inserting pulleys at different places. (Itziar and Emre)

June 2011

-Meeting with Shadow Robot Company. Pneumatic devices, rubber muscles, a printed board with a micro-controller including control commands and a code to make the connection between the board and Ubuntu are provided. (Emre and Itziar)
-Litterature review about mechanical structures for finger. (Emre)
-Learning of programming skills in C. (Itziar)
-Familiarization with pneumatic devices and air muscles, setting up of a pneumatic circuit. (Emre and Itziar)

Shadow's board - pneumatic and electronic configuration to control 4 air muscles

-Design of a first finger´s prototype. (Emre and Itziar)
-Familiarization with Shadow Robot´s board and basic commands to control the valves. The prototype can move. (Emre)
-Design of a second electronic board to control the valves. (Itziar)

May 2011

-Literature review about technologies using pneumatic muscles. (Emre)
-Literature review about remote-controls. (Itziar)

February-March 2011

-Introduction of the idea of an ambidextrous robot hand to Brunel University and Shadow Robot Company. (Prof Stelarc)
-The project is accepted and is proposed to an internship for students from ESIEE Engineering, a university of electronic and computer engineering. (Dr Kalganova)

Emre's facts

-Before coming to UK, Emre was supposed to do his engineering internship in Tokyo, which was cancelled because of Fukushima disaster.
-The English translation of "Emre Akyürek" is "Pureheart Disciple". The initials make PhD.
-Half of students who worked with Emre agree to say he is crazy.
-Emre and the Ambidextrous Hand are both born on a 13th June.
-Emre and Anthony H. planned to marry each other in January 2014, so Emre could obtain the English citizenship, and consequently a scholarship they could share together. The wedding was cancelled a couple of days before its due, after Dr Kalganova said a period of two years was necessary for nationnality transfer.
-During his whole PhD, neither taking the final month nor the electronical connections into account, Emre worked for less than 2 weeks on the Ambidextrous Robot Hand's movements.